By integrating cultural cooperation protocols into trade agreements and promoting the objectives and principles of the Convention in other international and regional for a, treaties and agreements, the EU supports equal access, openness and balance in the flow of cultural goods and services and facilitates the mobility of cultural professionals (Objective 2 of the Convention). This is why the EU is also contributing to the implementation of SDG 10 by implementing the principle of special and differentiated treatment of developing countries, particularly least developed countries, in cultural trade agreements (Objective 10.a). The European Union negotiates free trade agreements on behalf of all its member states, as EU member states have granted “exclusive jurisdiction” to conclude trade agreements. Nevertheless, the governments of the Member States control every step of the process (through the Council of the European Union, whose members are the national ministers of each national government). The Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, the Palestinian Authority, Syria, Tunisia) and the Eastern European countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, but without Russia, which insists on the creation of four COMMON EU-Russia areas) fall under the EPI. Seven Mediterranean countries have established a “Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement” (EMAA) with the EU, while Palestine has an interim EMAA agreement.  Syria signed an EMAA in 2008, but the signing was postponed sine die. Negotiations for a framework agreement with the remaining Libyan state have been suspended. The Republic of Moldova and Ukraine of the Eastern Partnership have entered into association agreements. Armenia concluded A.A.
negotiations in 2013, but decided not to sign the agreement, while Azerbaijan was negotiating an AA. The agreements under discussion are listed below. A mutual recognition agreement is an agreement in which countries recognize the assessment of each other`s compliance. When compliance assessments are applied to products, they are tested to a defined performance standard. Inspections, quality management, monitoring, accreditation and compliance declarations are also taking place. Following an agreement with the partners on the text of the agreement, the Commission submits formal proposals to the Council for its adoption. 7. In many cases, the Association Agreement replaces a cooperation agreement and thus strengthens relations between partners. In its initial phase, the Council authorises the European Commission to negotiate a new trade agreement on behalf of the EU. This requires a “negotiating mandate.” With the appropriate authorization, the Commission adopts negotiating guidelines that include the objectives, scope and possible timelines of the negotiations.
The Southern African Customs Union and the countries of Mozambique`s trade bloc have been added to the list of signed agreements. Trade agreements between the EU and other countries or free trade zones have different implications for national economies. The agricultural industry is most affected when regional farms face competition from large producers who have access to markets in the event of lower tariffs. In major agreements such as the AA with Mercosur, European countries are significantly opposed to cheaper imports of meat and other products.  However, for the automotive and export manufacturing industries, which generally include larger global groups, significant increases in volume are evident for more industrialized members of trade.  The EU also enters into non-preferential trade agreements under broader agreements such as Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (CPAs).